Third grade is often considered a pivotal year as instruction in phonics is phased out of the formal curriculum and emphasis increases on vocabulary acquisition, comprehension strategies, text analysis, language conventions, and writing. A crucial goal is that all students leave third grade able to read fluently, effortlessly, independently, and enthusiastically. In mathematics, third-graders deepen their understanding of place value and knowledge of and skill with addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers. Students develop an understanding of fractions as numbers, concepts of area and perimeter of plane figures, and attributes of various shapes. Standards-based instruction also includes Science, History-Social Science, Visual & Performing Arts, Health, and more.